As we have seen, the harmonisation of the EU visa regime in 2001 has largely closed the Schengen area to neighbouring countries in the east and south. Until 2010, citizens of these countries did not have a visa exemption when they crossed the EU`s external borders. That is why we assume that the desire to (re) win visa-free travel in the EU macro-zone is a relevant political objective for these neighbouring countries. However, the possibilities for visa liberalisation should depend in part on current and historical developments in population movements and migration policy between EU Member States and the third countries concerned. On the one hand, the EU has classified these countries as transit countries (El Qadim, 2014), making them strategic places for the EU`s political fight against irregular migration. However, the extent to which migrants come from or use these countries for transit is highly variable; The EU has long experienced postcolonial migration and an influx of migrant workers from Morocco and Turkey, while Moldova`s relations with the EU are not characterized by such historical views. Today, that pattern has changed. The issue of irregular migration, often transit, transit, from or transit to Morocco to Spain and from Turkey to Greece, is of great importance to policy makers at both national and EU level (Wolff, 2014). Moldova, on the other hand, is not considered an important gateway for irregular migrants. Rather, these debates are characterized by the issue of visa overruns or irregular employment of Moldovan citizens in the EU. Subsequently, the readmission agreements for migrants in transit are probably more important to the EU in their negotiations with Turkey and Morocco than in the case of Moldova. Council of the European Union (2001).
RATSE REGULATION (EC) third countries whose nationals must hold a visa to cross external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from this obligation (No. 539/2001, 2001, 15 March). Brussel. Morocco is located in the southern Mediterranean and is an important country of origin for immigrants to Europe. In addition, it has increasingly become a country of immigration and transit for migrants from Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and, more recently, Syria. Some of these migrants expect to use Morocco as a stopover on their way to Europe (Natter, 2016, p.